X-Rays, an essential tool in electronic manufacturing

Every profession requires tools to observe and inspect the result of the work done, such as X-rays.

A mechanic will need a caliper gauge; a lighting technician a luxmeter and an electronic specialist would need an oscilloscope. And so we would find as many examples as professions.

In SMD assembly world the tool that would allow us to verify the quality of a weld and, in addition, the integration of a PCB, is an X-ray equipment.

These equipment are constituted by an emitter of Rx and a sensor that generates the image to be evaluate. Materials with a higher atomic weight absorb more Rx, while lighter materials are more transparent. The welding material in printed circuits is generally made of heavy materials (tin, lead, silver, indium, etc.). On the other hand, many of the elements that make up components are lighter (aluminium, copper, carbon, silicon, etc.).

This contrast allows us to obtain a defined image.

Using X-rays we can observe:

– Tin homogeneity on the inclined pad / component

-Lack of material in any pad

– Rotations or unwanted displacements


– Solder paste excess

– VOIDS (gas bubbles generated when tin melting)

– Study of the percentage of VOIDS (in this case, the Thermal Pad has 40% of VOIDS)

VOID seen with a metallographic cut

– PCB’s (finishes, tracks, tolerances, etc.)

– Components (quality, condition, avoid copies, etc.)


A tool like Rx not only allows to verify the manufacturing of a PCB; It also allows us to inspect the quality of the components to be integrated (PCB’s, LED, etc.).

One of the processes requiring most extensive manufacturing control is the integration of LEDs.

These components are exceptionally complicated to manufacture, and improper handling or welding would produce a long-term problem.

Using the Rx we are able to supervise:

– That the welding is correct.

– The percentage of VOIDS in the Thermal PAD is less than 20%

– The state of the Wire Bonds

At JVV Grup we have equipped SMD production lines and manufacturing processes aimed at LED integration. Each of the productions is supervised in a percentage to guarantee the correct insertion and welding. And for this it is essential to incorporate X-rays supervision.

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Website, X-rays 12-09-2019
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